ECOLOGICAL DESIGN

ECOLOGICAL APARTMENT BUILDING

1, Engineering regards innovation and development as prior- ity work. Its campus covers a total area of 160 hectares with a construction area of 670,000 m2, and nearly 20,000 full-time enrolled students.
2, Due to wonderful design and the accurate plan, it is full of sustainable concepts and buildings around the central lake and mountain in the campus.
3, The principal concept of design is to harmonize the relationship between human and buildings, between buildings and environment, especially the landform.
4, The main plan concept is a central greenbelt in campus which is named “ecological corridor” to gather sustainable concept and resources including architectural style, art expression & civilizations.
5, The all-important concept of architecture is to utilize the advanced technique and construction to realize sustainable building and energy conservation.
6, The leading concept of construction is to seek the high efficiency, high quality, low pollution, which could build a new comfortable situation for the campus. That is called “rebuilding the environment”. THE ECOLOGICAL APARTMENT BUILDING
1, The ecological apartment building jointly constructed with Canada is the first ecological building among all universities in China. That is a student dormitory which are full of sustainable concept and equipments that are useful for saving energy.
2, The sustainable concept equipments include: Automatic Solar Tracker, Solar Wall System, Solar, Ventilation, Chimney, Natural, etc; architectural environ – ment and consuming less energy by using proper technology and make full use of the solar energy.
3, The Solar Wall System is a new project produced by the cooperation of Canada and USA which could apply fresh air and comfortable temperature to the room and also could be used widely in heat- ing, warm-up, drying and dehumidify.
4, That is the first time in China among universities to use the Solar Wall System as the air-condition to realize the effective ventilation
5, Natural Ventilation System is used for reducing the indoor temperature, promote comfortable air environment and reducing the working charge of air-conditions through the appropriate design of ven- tilation, proper leading of the airflow.


THE PUMPING-UNDERGROUND-HEAT TECHNOLOGY
1, The pumping-underground-heat technology invented by our institute is applied to the library and academic lecture hall.
2, That is the first time in China to use the pumping-underground-heat technology to control the tem- perature in the room.
3, The pumping-underground-heat technology system is the better way to keep the temperature of the room and utilize the underground-heat effectively. I
4, Due to the balanced temperature of the deep land, Water could be the medium through the pipeline to take heat in summer (cold in winter) into deep land to change caloric.

ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS

Explanation: The thesis has being developed on the Architecture and Energy PhD programme of Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona, Spain. The research deals with the energy consumption at universities centres and the energy audit methods to achieve the efficiency and sus- tainability of their buildings.
The study proposes an evaluation of the recents proceedings and methods adopted by the UPC to include the sustainable principles at the UPC’s Master Plans, following some previous researches developed in the framework of Laboratori REAL (Pla de Medi Ambient) of the University.
The main objective is to propose a methodology to integrate all aspects involved in the energy con – sumption of buildings at universities centres and their relation with the management of natural and economics resources.
The premise to the study is that the energy consumption is related to 3 main factors: building loca – tion (outdoor and indoor conditions) and building characteristics (architecture and construction); sys- tems and infraestructures and, finally, the management of use and occupation (intensity and space- time distribution).
Besides the UPC, the methodology should be applied to another contexts with same characteristcs of use, in this case to the South Brazilian University of Passo Fundo (UPF). The application must con- textualize both climate, cultural, social and economy situations.
At the conclusion of the study it will be possible to improve the method as an operational tool, to help taking decisons during the whole process of design, construction and use of buildings. Also, as an environmental and economical assessment of building performance, it will be useful to optimize the efficiency of existing buildings.

DOUBLE-SKIN FACADES FOR HOT-HUMID CLIMATE
There is a need for a sustainable development in the Hong Kong build environment. One of the most significant technologies for energy savings in a building is the facade. Architects working in collabo- ration with engineers started to take an energy-responsible approach to the design of building facades where the facade contributes to both the embodied energy as well as operating energy of a building. However, little work has been done on the behaviour of double-skin facades in hot and humid climates. It is not sufficient to adopt the new concepts to a different environment. The season- al and daily climate in respect to mean temperature, humidity and wind speed distribution in Hong Kong is different to the moderate climate in Europe. A new approach has to take the climatic factors into account to find out if a double-skin facade can help to reduce the energy consumption in build- ings in a hot and humid climate.
SIMULATION
From the analysis of existing buildings in Hong Kong three different types of facades were identified. This leads to three different simulation models which were compared to a prototype building with a single skin curtain wall system as a base case. The other models refer to the three different projects with different construction geometries as follows:
Facade options Precedents Cavity width
Option 1 conventional curtain wall 0 m
Option 2 double-skin facade as external air curtain with 500 mm
air cavity and movable blind installed in-between 0.5 m
Option 3 double-skin facade as external air curtain with 2000 mm
air cavity and movable blind installed in-between 2 m
Option 4 air-flow window in which interior conditioned air flows through
200mm cavity of double-skin facade and return into ahu 0.2 m
Option 5 air-flow options (Option 4) in which exterior unconditioned air

The VisualDOE is capable of simulating whole building energy consumption cal- culating the annual electricity consumption of lighting, small power load and cooling. It was used to simulate the different types of double-skin facades but for the buoyancy flow in the cavity four differ- ent assumptions were made. The simulation was run with 2, 5 10 air changes per hour (acph) in the cavity. Additionally 200 acph were assumed as a maximum of buoyancy flow to study the influence of further increases in acph. There was no support of airflow to the HVAC-system assumed so all options were simulated with the same HVAC-system.
RESULTS
Option 3 shows the best consumption reduction of 9.18%compared to the base case follow by option
5 with a reduction of 8.17%. By looking at the consumption pattern of the three different energy-con- suming units an increase of lighting and a decrease of cooling consumption is apparent. The differ – ence of energy savings for option 3 between no ventilation and a ventilation of 200 air changes per hour is 2.00%.

VERAMAR PROJECT SCAP

This is an Urban Regeneration Master Plan that involves 15 different projects for an important port in Mexico: the Port of Veracruz. The new shape of this 2 miles long waterfront will include a cruiser dock, a Marina, four shopping malls, an historic district, an aquarium, a beach renewal, a kids muse- um and a visitor center.

Throughout the water front of this great city, several areas are deteriorated, generating an urban recy- cling. Some of the old spaces will turn in to commercial areas. With these commercial zones the project will obtain founds to finish its own financing and o making possible all the implementation. The areas that are being operated by particulars will grow with private investments.

On the other hand, the government will facilitate the permits for the implementation of the master plan. The aquarium of Veracruz, which at the moment is the biggest aquarium in Latin America, works as one of the detonators points of the master plan, and will enhance its spaces.

The urban study of the streets, as well as the accessibility from different points will promote the rise of the land cost beneficiating their owners and making them care of the zone. At this moment, the project is in study by the governmental departments.

BUILDINGS, CLIMATE AND PLANTS

Buildings, Climate and Plants are three indispensables in a built environment. Buildings replace the original plants and create urban climates which may trigger many environmental issues. Climate influ- ences the typology, performances and energy consumption of buildings and governs distribution, abundance, health and functioning of plants worldwide. Plants, in its return, bring many related ben- efits to buildings and generate Oasis effect in an urban climate. The three indispensables closely link with each other and create an unique Buildings-Climate-Plants system in a built environment. The mechanism of the system will have an important role in achieving sustainable development in a built environment.

Singapore city has been testified by the model. First of all, the current environmental issues related to the conflicts (i.e. UHI effect) between buildings and the tropical climate are measured. Although Singapore is a garden city where the development intensification is balanced with the nurtured land- scaping to a certain extent, it is still a question mark whether the existing green could mitigate the environmental issues perfectly.

To achieve a sustainable development, the current landscape should be extended to individual build- ings which is the root of a harsh urban environment. Therefore, a new three-dimension greening pro- gramme has been launched on the basis of the Garden City campaign conducted in the last 40 years. Greenery in the forms of nature reserves, national parks and large vacant areas is maintained at the macro- level while plants has started to be introduced into local buildings.

Through a series of studies carried out with different government agencies, the benefits of plants in mitigating the conflicts between the local buildings and the tropical climate have been confirmed. It is believed that a sustainable and balanced urban environment can be achieved in the tropical city with the maximum intervention of introduced plants and the tolerable conflicts between the climate and the buildings.

LIVING WITH NATURE IN HARMONY

“Pigeon house” or “pigeon tower” is cylindrical and ornamented tower includes of three stories and thousands nests for attracting and keeping pigeon in order to producing fertilizer from their dung.

From an ancient time Iranians look at respectively because their lives depend on this element, fertil- ized land is important because nearly one third of Iran is desert so architects helps people keep the soil fertilized, by building “pigeon house”. These kinds of buildings are great masterpieces of ancient Iranian architecture that work entirely harmonically with nature.

“Pigeon house” or “pigeon tower” is cylindrical and ornamented tower includes of three stories and thousands nests for attracting and keeping pigeon in order to producing fertilizer from their dung.

Pigeon house are interesting from two points:
1-harmonical relation between nature, architecture and people
A-environment
B-economic
C-social
2-architectural aspects such as:
A-resistance against vibration that produce by flying pigeons
B-maximum surface of a cylinder
C-technology and material of construction
D-providing optimized space and suitable condition for pigeons
E-architectural solutions for protecting pigeons against other wild animals
F-architectural Solutions for protecting pigeons against climate changes

Towards Urban Sustainability

By 2025, more than 60 percent of the earth’s inhabitants will reside in cities, a phenomenon that is now reflected in the “less developed dountries”. Without any relation to their economic condition, big cities are taking a place in the world and the populations are growing vertiginously. Is not difficult to understand that the anarchic over-crowding of cities has unpredictable situ- ations for its inhabitants, sometimes with tragic consequences and we cannot know when or how will be hitten by a natural disasters of big proportions as a earthquake or an inundation as it has hap – pened in the past. We must learn how to live with harmony with the nature and be prepared for this events.

The biggest urban regeneration proj – ect that can change the face of one of the biggest cities in the world: Mexico City. Their idea was to recover part of the old Texcoco Lake, where the City is founded and make the city emerges again from the lake (some architects call to this city the “Anti-Atlantis”) let’s say, a kind of a 22 million peo- ple’s “New Venice”, trying to take back the original urban proposals (channels, big streets and the lake, of course) that started the developed of the city 700 years ago. The most interesting project I had ever heard about, but also one of the most difficult, but not impossible dreams. The idea was to change, from the urban chaos into a ecological zone. Today, almost the 70 percent of the drinking water that the city uses is taken from very far dams and lakes, and the sewage system has to run hundreds of kilometers to be dispossed after be treated. The rainwater goes to the drainage and is not use to refill the necessities of the subsoil. But the worst part is that the rainwater affects many communities located in low-altitude zones suffering water flood -even Mexico City is located 2,240 meters above the sea level, is a valley, where the water stack in the extinct lake lower levels.

The idea of this proposal is, taking one of the zones that use to be flooded every year and also has a very simple urban pattern, transform the first floors of the houses in a sort of free-space area and use the superior floors as a close-rooms. Make a series of installations for boats, piers and even gar- dens that will be parks on the non-raining season, but also water-recreational areas when the water is present. A simple and logical step: to be prepared for every’s year inundation. Then, the people will be ready to receive every year’s changes and also make a better community, a tourist zone and keep the transportation system free of problems switching the car-system into a boat-system. Also the pub- lic buses will change into water-buses, trying to keep the zone free of contamination using man-force systems like the ones are using in the south of Mexico City in a tourist place named Xochimilco. To prepare the city for this could be a first step to recover the lake again and domestic the water into a new urban dimension.